Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Computer Networks Interview Questions and Answers

1. What are 10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet LANs
10Base2—An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 100
meters and a maximum of 2 segments.
10Base5—An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with 5 continuous segments not exceeding 100
meters per segment.
10BaseT—An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling and twisted pair cabling.

2. What is the difference between an unspecified passive open and a fully specified passive open
An unspecified passive open has the server waiting for a connection request from a client. A fully specified passive open has the server waiting for a connection from a
specific client.

3. Explain the function of Transmission Control Block
A TCB is a complex data structure that contains a considerable amount of information about each connection.

4. What is a Management Information Base (MIB)
A Management Information Base is part of every SNMP-managed device. Each SNMP agent has the MIB database that contains information about the device's status, its
performance, connections, and configuration. The MIB is queried by SNMP.

5. What is anonymous FTP and why would you use it
Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Usually, anonymous FTP uses a login called anonymous or guest, with the
password usually requesting the user's ID for tracking purposes only. Anonymous FTP is used to enable a large number of users to access files on the host without having
to go to the trouble of setting up logins for them all. Anonymous FTP systems usually have strict controls over the areas an anonymous user can access.

6. What is a pseudo tty A pseudo tty or false terminal enables external machines to connect through Telnet or rlogin. Without a pseudo tty, no connection can take place.

7. What is REX
What advantage does REX offer other similar utilities

8. What does the Mount protocol do
The Mount protocol returns a file handle and the name of the file system in which a requested file resides. The message is sent to the client from the server after reception of a client's request.

9. What is External Data Representation
External Data Representation is a method of encoding data within an RPC message, used to ensure that the data is not system-dependent.

10. What is the Network Time Protocol ?

11. BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to the network looking
for its IP address and the location of its operating system boot files BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnetwork broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.

12. What is a DNS resource record
A resource record is an entry in a name server's database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource
records are maintained as ASCII files.

13. What protocol is used by DNS name servers
DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course,
transmission reliability suffers with UDP.
14. What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways
Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.

15. What is the HELLO protocol used for
The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing
Information Protocol.

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three types of routing tables
The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central. The fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change. A dynamic table changes its
information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance. A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other
devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network
administrator, although the table's contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change.

17. What is a TCP connection table
18. What is source route
It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.

19. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.

20. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)
It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.

21. What is Proxy ARP
It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.
22. What is OSPF
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.

23. What is Kerberos
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.
24. What is a Multi-homed Host
It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires m ultiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host.

25. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.
26. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol
It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.

27. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous
system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).

28. What is autonomous system
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.

29. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached
within or via each autonomous system.
Computer Networks Interview Questions
30. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.
31. What is Mail Gateway
It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.
32. What is wide-mouth frog
Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.
33. What are Digrams and Trigrams
The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing,
and, and ion.
34. What is silly window syndrome
It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the
receiving side reads 1 byte at a time.
35. What is region
When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations
within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.
36. What is multicast routing
Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.
37. What is traffic shaping
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate,
congestion would be less common. Another open loop
method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called
traffic shaping.
38. What is packet filter
Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or
outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting
some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.
39. What is virtual path
Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped
together into what is called path.
Computer Networks Interview Questions
40. What is virtual channel
Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections are also
permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual
41. What is logical link control
One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer
is responsible for maintaining the link between
computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection.
42. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model
It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design.
43. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols
Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable protocols are
designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be
used with a router
44. What is MAU
In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU).
45. Explain 5-4-3 rule
In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four
repeaters, and of those five segments only three of
segments can be populated.
46. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not provide
reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet
delivery services offered by UDP.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one host to
another. It uses the services offered by TCP and so is
reliable and secure. It establishes two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another
for control information.
47. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses
Class A -
Class B -
Class C -
Class D -
Class E -
48. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram
The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes.
Computer Networks Interview Questions
49. What is difference between ARP and RARP
The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used
by a host or a router to find the physical address of
another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver.
The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its
physical address.
50. What is ICMP
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to
send notification of datagram problems back to the
sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both
control and error messages.
51. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite
The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data unit created is called
either a segment or an user datagram, at the network
layer the data unit created is called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and
finally transmitted as signals along the transmission
52. What is Project 802
It is a project started by IEEE to set standards that enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of
manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the
physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN
It consists of the following:
802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.
802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecture-specific, that is
remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.
Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each
carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product
being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).
802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.
53. What is Bandwidth
Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the
54. Difference between bit rate and baud rate.
Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per
second that are required to represent
those bits.
baud rate = bit rate / N
where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.
55. What is MAC address
Computer Networks Interview Questions
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC
address is usually stored in ROM on the network
adapter card and is unique.
56. What is attenuation
The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.
57. What is cladding
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.
58. What is RAID
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.
59. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it
hides the networking hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small
60. What is redirector
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes
under presentation layer.
61. What is Beaconing
The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other
stations on the ring when they are not receiving the
transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks.
62. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes
Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.
63. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes
Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.
64. What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks
The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol
has been defined between the terminal and the
PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these
three recommendations are often called "triple X"
65. What is SAP
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack.
Computer Networks Interview Questions
66. What is subnet
A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.
67. What is Brouter
Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers.
68. How Gateway is different from Routers
A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different
network architectures or data formats.
69. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices
Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the
network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original
bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link.
These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller
segments. They contain logic that allow them to
keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment
containing the intended recipent and control congestion.
They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical,
data link and network layers. They contain software
that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.
They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a
packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a
packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model.
70. What is mesh network
A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel.
71. What is passive topology
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they
don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for
passive topology - linear bus.
72. What are the important topologies for networks
BUS topology:
In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line.
Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend.
STAR topology:
In this all computers are connected using a central hub.
Computer Networks Interview Questions
Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems.
RING topology:
In this all computers are connected in loop.
All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal does not degrade as much as
in other topologies because each computer
regenerates it.
73. What are major types of networks and explain
Server-based network
Peer-to-peer network
Peer-to-peer network, computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources.
Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide
security and network administration
74. What is Protocol Data Unit
The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination
service access point (DSAP), a source service access
point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the
protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines
that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I -
frame) or a supervisory frame (S - frame) or a
unnumbered frame (U - frame).
75. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission
In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband
transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing
multiple signals to be sent simultaneously.
76. What are the possible ways of data exchange
(i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex.
77. What are the types of Transmission media
Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories.
Guided Media:
These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic
cable. A signal traveling along any of these media
is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept
and transport signals in the form of electrical
current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.
Unguided Media:
This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are
broadcast either through air. This is done through radio
communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony.
78. What is point-to-point protocol
Computer Networks Interview Questions
A communications protocol used to connect computers to remote networking services including Internet service
79. What are the two types of transmission technology available
(i) Broadcast and (ii) point-to-point
80. Difference between the communication and transmission.
Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronization, clock etc.
Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media.

Monday, June 29, 2009

Most common Interview Questions on all topics

HR Questions (Most commonly asked Interview Questions)
1. Tell me about you!
Keep your answer to one or two minutes; don't ramble. Stick to what you've
written in your resume summary. To answer this question well, you'll need
to start with a solid and concise resume summary.
2. What do you know about our company?
Do your homework before the interview! Spend some time online or at the
library researching the company. Find out as much as you can, including
products, size, income, reputation, image, management talent, people,
skills, history and philosophy. Project an informed interest; let the
interviewer tell you about the company.
3. Why do you want to work for us?
Don't talk about what you want; first, talk about their needs: You would like
to be part of a specific company project; you would like to solve a company
problem; you can make a definite contribution to specific company goals.
4. What would you do for us?
What they really want to know is... What can you do for us that someone
else can't? Relate past experiences that show you've had success in
solving previous employer problem(s) that may be similar to those of the
prospective employer. Make sure you have a strongly worded Employment
History section in your resume, that you can refer to.
5. What about the job offered do you find the most attractive? Least
List three or more attractive factors and only one minor unattractive factor.
6. Why should we hire you?
Because of your knowledge, experience, abilities and skills.
7. What do you look for in a job?
An opportunity to use your skills, to perform and be recognized.
8. Please give me your definition of a.... (the position for which you are
being interviewed).
Keep it brief -- give an action- and results-oriented definition.
9. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our
Not long at all -- you expect only a brief period of adjustment to the
learning curve.
10. How long would you stay with us?
As long as we both feel I'm contributing, achieving, growing, etc.
Warm-Up Questions
1. What made you apply for this position?
2. How did you hear about this job opening?
3. Briefly, would you summarize your work history & education for me?
Work History
1. What special aspects of your work experience have prepared you for
this job?
2. Can you describe for me one or two of your most important
3. How much supervision have you typically received in your previous
4. Describe for me one or two of the biggest disappointments in your
work history?
5. Why are you leaving your present job? (or, Why did you leave your
last job?)
6. What is important to you in a company? What things do you look for
in an organization?
Job Peformance
1. Everyone has strengths & weaknesses as workers. What are your
strong points for this job?
2. What would you say are areas needing improvement?
3. How did your supervisor on your most recent job evaluate your job
performance? What were some of the good points & bad points of
that rating?
4. When you have been told , or discovered for yourself , a problem in
your job performance, what have you typically done? Can you give
me an example?
5. Do you prefer working alone or in groups?
6. What kind of people do you find it most difficult to work with? Why?
7. Starting with your last job, tell me about any of your achievements
that were recognized by your superiors.
8. Can you give me an example of your ability to manage or supervise
9. What are some things you would like to avoid in a job? Why?
10. In your previous job what kind of pressures did you encounter?
11. What would you say is the most important thing you are looking for
in a job?
12. What are some of the things on your job you feel you have done
particularly well or in which you have achieved the greatest
success? Why do you feel this way?
13. What were some of the things about your last job that you found
most difficult to do?
14. What are some of the problems you encounter in doing your job?
Which one frustrates you the most? What do you usually do about
15. What are some things you particularly liked about your last job?
16. Do you consider your progress on the job representative of your
ability? Why?
17. How do you feel about the way you & others in the department were
managed by your supervisor?
18. If I were to ask your present (most recent) employer about your
ability as a____________________, what would he/she say?
1. What special aspects of your education or training have prepared
you for this job?
2. What courses in school have been of most help in doing your job?
1. What is your long-term employment or career objective?
2. What kind of job do you see yourself holding five years from now?
3. What do you feel you need to develop in terms of skill & knowledge
in order to be ready for that opportunity?
4. Why might you be successful in such a job?
5. How does this job fit in with your overall career goals?
6. Who or what in your life would you say influenced you most with
your career objectives?
7. Can you pinpoint any specific things in your past experience that
affected your present career objectives?
8. What would you most like to accomplish if you had this job?
9. What might make you leave this job?
1. What kind of things do you feel most confident in doing?
2. Can you describe for me a difficult obstacle you have had to
overcome? How did you handle it? How do you feel this experience
affected your personality or ability?
3. How would you describe yourself as a person?
4. What do you think are the most important characteristics & abilities a
person must possess to become a successful ( )? How do you rate
yourself in these areas?
5. Do you consider yourself a self-starter? If so, explain why ( and give
6. What do you consider to be your greatest achievements to date?
7. What things give you the greatest satisfaction at work?
8. What things frustrate you the most? How do you usually cope with
1. In your work experience, what have you done that you consider truly
2. Can you think of a problem you have encountered when the old
solutions didn't work & when you came up with new solutions?
3. Of your creative accomplishments big or small , at work or home,
what gave you the most satisfaction?
4. What kind of problems have people recently called on you to solve?
Tell me what you have devised.
1. Do you consider yourself to be thoughtful, analytical or do you
usually make up your mind fast? Give an example. (Watch time taken
to respond)
2. What was your most difficult decision in the last six months? What
made it difficult?
3. The last time you did not know what decision to make, what did you
4. How do you go about making an important decision affecting your
5. What was the last major problem that you were confronted with?
What action did you take on it?
1. What organizations do you belong to?
2. Tell me specifically what you do in the civic activities in which you
participate. (Leading questions in selected areas. i.e. sports,
economics, current events, finance.)
3. How do you keep up with what's going on in your company / your
industry/ your profession?
1. What is your professional goal?
2. Can you give me examples of experience on the job that you felt
were satisfying?
3. Do you have a long & short-term plan for your department? Is it
4. Did you achieve it last year?
5. Describe how you determine what constitutes top priorities in the
performance of your job.
1. What are your standards of success in your job?
2. In your position, how would you define doing a good job? On what
basis was your definition determined?
3. When judging the performance of your subordinate, what factors or
characteristics are most important to you?
1. In your present job what approach do you take to get your people
together to establish a common approach to a problem?
2. What approach do you take in getting your people to accept your
ideas or department goals?
3. What specifically do you do to set an example for your employees?
4. How frequently do you meet with your immediate subordinates as a
5. What sort of leader do your people feel you are? Are you satisfied?
6. How do you get people who do not want to work together to
establish a common approach to a problem?
7. If you do not have much time & they hold seriously differing views,
what would be your approach?
8. How would you describe your basic leadership style? Give specific
examples of how you practice this?
9. Do you feel you work more effectively on a one to one basis or in a
group situation?
10. Have you ever led a task force or committee or any group who
doesn't report to you, but from whom you have to get work? How did
you do it? What were the satisfactions & disappointments? How
would you handle the job differently?
1. Have you ever done any public or group speaking? Recently? Why?
How did it go?
2. Have you made any individual presentations recently? How did you
1. Would you rather write a report or give a verbal report? Why?
2. What kind of writing have you done? For a group? For an individual?
3. What is the extent of your participation in major reports that have to
be written?
1. What was the most important idea or suggestion you received
recently from your employees? What happened as a result?
2. What do you think about the continuous changes in company
operating policies & procedures?
3. How effective has your company been in adapting its policies to fit a
changing environment?
4. What was the most significant change made in your company in the
last six months which directly affected you, & how successfully do
you think you implemented this change?
1. Do you feel pressure in your job? Tell me about it.
2. What has been the highest pressure situation you have been under
in recent years? How did you cope with it?
1. Describe your most significant success & failure in the last two
2. What do you like to do best?
3. What do you like to do least?
4. What in your last review did your supervisor suggest needed
5. What have you done about it?
1. What has been the most important person or event in your own self
2. How much of your education did you earn?
3. What kind of books & other publications do you read?
4. Have you taken a management development course?
5. How are you helping your subordinates develop themselves?
1. What is workadround ?
2. What is a show stopper?
3. What is Traceability Matrix? Who prepares this document?
4. What is testlog document in testing process?
5. What is the Entry And Exit Criteria of a test plan? 2.How to Automate
your test plan?
6. What is the role of QA in a company that produces software?
7. What is terminologe? Why testing necessary? Fundamental test process
psychology of testing
8. What are the common bugs encountered while testing an application
manually or using test?
9. What are the bug and testing metrics?
10. For a bug with high severity can we give the priority also to be high...If
so why we need both?
11. How would you differentiaite between Bug, Defect, Failure, Error.
12. What is the difference between Client Server Testing and Web Testing?
13. What is backward compatibility testing ?
14. What certifications are available in testing?
15. What is release candidate?
16. What do you think the role of test-group manager should be?
17. What is a test data? Give examples
18. What is the difference between QA, QC and testing?
19. What is seviarity & priority? What is test format? Test procedure?
20. What are the different is manual database checking types?
1. What is the difference between testing in client-server applications and
web based applications?
2. Without using GUI map editor, Can we recognise the application in
3. What command is used to launch a application in Winrunner?
4. What is the difference in testing a CLIENT-SERVER application and a
WEB application ?
6. What bugs are mainly come in Web Testing? What severity and priority
we are giving?
1. What are the table contents in test plans and test cases?
2. What are the tables in test plans and test cases?
1. What is Wireless Testing? How do we do it? What are the concepts a test
engineer should have knowledge of? How do you classify testing of
wireless products?
1. How will you prepare test cases?
2. Write the testcases on ATM Transactions?
3. What is meant by Hot Keys?
4. How is test case written?
5. How can we write a good test case?
6. How will you check that your test cases covered all the requirements
7. For a triangle (sum of two sides is greater than or equal to the third side),
what is the minimal number of test cases required.
2. How will you generate the defect ID in test director? Is it generated
automatically or not?
3. Difference between TD 8.0 (Test director) and QC 8.0 (Quality Center).
4. How do you ensure that there are no duplication of bugs in Test
5. Difference between WinRunner and Test Director?
6. How will you integrated your automated scripts from TestDirector?
7. What is the use of Test Director software?
1. How to find out the length of the edit box through WinRunner?
2. Is it compulsary that a tester should study a Design Document for writing
integration and system test casses
3. What is Testing Scenario? What is scenario based testing? Can you
explain with an example?
4. Lets say we have an GUI map and scripts, and we got some 5 new pages
included in an application, How do we do that?
5. How do you complete the testing when you have a time constraint?
6. Given an yahoo application how many test cases u can write?
7. GUI contains 2 fields. Field 1 to accept the value of x and Field 2 displays
the result of the formula a+b/c-d where a=0.4*x, b=1.5*a, c=x, d=2.5*b; How
many system test cases would you write
8. How do you know that all the scenarios for testing are covered?
1. Give me an example where you have customized an automated test
2. What steps have you followed while automating?
.......a) Running the test manually and ensuring a "pass".
.......b) Recording
.......c) Checkpoints/Verification
3. Can you automate Context-sensitive help? If so, how do you that?
4. What are the major differences between Stress testing, Load testing,
Volume testing?
5. What is the difference between quality assurance and testing?
6. What are the main attributes of test automation?
7. What is data - driven automation?
8. What is 'configuration management'?
9. What is memory leaks and buffer overflows?
10. Why does software have bugs?
11. How do you do usability testing, security testing, installation testing,
ADHOC, safety and smoke testing?
12. Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool.
13. How do we test for severe memory leakages?
14. What are the problems encountered during the testing the application
compatibility on different browsers and on different operating systems
15. How will you evaluate the fields in the application under test using
automation tool?
16. How did you use automating testing tools in your job?
17. What skills needed to be a good test automator?
18. Can the activities of test case design be automated?
19. What types of scripting techniques for test automation do you know?
.What are scripting techniques? Could you describe the 5 techniques
20. What tools are available for support of testing during software
development life cycle?
1. What is the diffrence between Regression testing and Retesting?
2. What are the errors encountered while testing an application manually or
using automated tool like Testdirector, Winrunner?
3. What is Inspection, Review?
4. What is the actual different between re-testing and regressiontesting.
brefily explain
5. Explain Test Strategy
6. What is Tracebility Matrix ?
7. What are the major diff. between the Winrunner 6.0 and 7.0 (with internal
8. What test you perform mostly? Regression or retesting in your testing
9. What did you do as a team leader?
10. How do we know about the build we are going to test? where do you
see this?
11. What is system testing and what are the different types of tests you
perform in system testing?
12. What is the difference between Return and treturn?
13. How do you test a weblink which is changing dynamically?
14. What are the flaws in water fall model and how to overcome it?
15. What is defect leakage?
16. Did you ever have to deal with someone who doesn't believe in testing?
What did u do?
17. How will you write test cases for a code currently under development?
18. Describe the last project scenario and generate test cases for it?
19. If there are a lot of bugs to be fixed, which one would you resolve first
20. How will you test a stapler?
1. If the actual result doesn't match with expected result in this situation
what should we do?
2. What is the importance of requirements traceability in a product testing?
3. When is the best time for system testing?
4. What is use case? What is the diffrence between test cases and use
5. What is the difference between the test case and a test script
6. Describe to the basic elements you put in a defect report?
7. How do you test if you have minimal or no documentation about the
8. How do you decide when you have tested enough?
9. How do you determine what to test?
10. In general, how do you see automation fitting into the overall process of
11. How do you deal with environments that are hostile to quality change
12. Describe to me the Software Development Life Cycle as you would
define it?
13. Describe to me when you would consider employing a failure mode and
defect analysis?
14. What is the role of QA in a company that produces software?
15. How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project?
16. How can you test the white page
17. What is the role of QA in a project developement?
18. How you used whitebox and block box technologies in your
19. 1) What are the demerits of winrunner?2) We write the test data after
what are the principles to do testing an application?
20. What is the job of Quality Assurance Engineer? Difference between the
Testing & Quality Assurance job.
1.. How to recognise the objects during runtime in new build version (test
suite) comparing with old guimap?
2. wait(20) - What is the minimum and maximum time the above mentioned
synchronization statements will wait given that the global default timeout is
set to 15 seconds.
3. Where in the user-defined function library should a new error code be
4. In a modular test tree, each test will receive the values for the parameters
passed from the main test. These parameters are defined in the Test
properties dialog box of each test.Refering to the above, in which one of
the following files are changes made in the test properties dialog saved?
5. What is the scripting process in Winrunner?
6. How many scripts can we generate for one project?
7. What is the command in Winrunner to invoke IE Browser? And once I
open the IE browser is there a unique way to identify that browser?
8. How do you load default comments into your new script like IDE's?
9. What is the new feature add in QTP 8.0 compare in QTP 6.0
10. When will you go to automation?
11. How to test the stored procedure?
12. How to recognise the objects during runtime in new build version (test
suite) comparing with old guimap
13. what is use of GUI files in winrunner.
14. Without using the datadriven test, how can we test the application with
different set of inputs?
15. How do you load compiled module inside a comiled module?
16. Can you tell me the bug life cycle
17. How to find the length of the edit box through WinRunner?
18. What is file type of WinRunner test files, its extension?
19. What is candidate release?
20. What type of variables can be used with in the TSL function?
1. In which directory are the .sbl files stored?
2. What SQABasic commands have you used?
3. Difference between SQAgetpropertyArray and SQAGetPropertyAsString?
4. What do .sbl and .sbh represent?
5. Is there any Load testing tool called Rational Site Load tool?
6. What is the difference between rational robot and QTP or Winrunner?
Which is more ueful of the three?
7. What is the difference between Rational Robot (Rational Functional
Tester) and IBM functional tester? which is better?
1. How can I add an action (external action) programmatically?
2. How can I call an external action, which is not added external action of
an action.
3. What is meant by Source Control?
4. How and what kind of VB functions do u use in QTP?
5. How can u describe the basic flow of automation with conditional and
programmatic logic?
6. How can I implement error handling in QTP,
7. How to recall a function in QTP
8. Give one example where you have used Regular Expression?
9. How can I implement error handling in QTP?
10. How to select particular value from the combo box in the current page
which is entered in the previous page edit box after parameterization?
11. If you have the same application screen with 7 drop down boxes and
approximately 70 values how do you test with QTP?
12. When there is a task that gets repeated in multiple scripts, what do you
do in QTP?
13. What is the descriptive programming?
14. What is the use of descriptive programming?
15. How to instruct QTP to display errors and other description in the test
results instead of halting execution by throwing error in the mid of
execution due to an error (for example Object not found)?
16. How you write scripts in QTP? What's the main process in QTP? How
do you run scripts in QTP? Please anyone can answer my questions.......
17. What is descriptive programming?
18. How to add run-time parameter to a datasheet?
19. How to load the *.vbs or test generating script in a new machine?
20. How can you write a script without using a GUI in QTP?
1. What is load testing? Can we test J2ME application with load runner ?
What is Performance testing?
2. Which protocol has to be selected for record/playback Oracle 9i
3. What are the enhancements which have been included in loadrunner 8.0
when compared to loadrunner 6.2?
4. Can we use Load Runner for testing desktop applications or non web
based applications and how do we use it.?
5. How to call winrunner script in Loadrunner?
6. What arr the types of parameterisation in load runner? List the step to do
strees testing?
7. What are the steps for doing load and performance testing using Load
8. What is concurrent load and corollation? What is the process of load
9. What is planning for the test?
10. What enables the controller and the host to communicate with each
other in Load Runner?
11. Where is Load testing usually done?
12. What are the only means of measuring performance?
13. Testing requirement and design are not part of what?
14. According to Market analysis 70% of performance problem lies with
15. What is the level of system loading expected to occur during specific
business scenario?
16. What is run-time-setting.
17. When load runner is used .
18. What protocols does LoadRunner support?
19. What do you mean by creating vuser script.?
20. What is rendezvous point?
1. What are the uses of load testing ? What is defered graphs? What are the
different components in loadrunner?
2. How you analyze graphics in loadrunner? How do you work bug log?
3. How can data caching have a negative effect on load testing results?
4. What criteria would you use to select Web transactions for load testing?
5. For what purpose are virtual users created?
6. What is the difference between Load testing and Performace Testing?
7. Why do you need to parameterize fields in your virtual user script?
8. What are the reasons why parameterization is necessary when load
testing the Web server and the database server?
9. Why it is recommended to add verification checks to your all your
10. Load Testing - What should be analyzed.
11. In what situation would you want to parameterize a text verification
12. What usually indicates that your virtual user script has dynamic data
that is dependent on you parameterized fields?
13. What are the benefits of creating multiple actions within any virtual user
1. What SQL statements have you used in Database Testing?
2. How to test data loading in Database testing
3. What is way of writing testcases for database testing?
4. What is Database testing?
5. What we normally check for in the Database Testing?
6. How to Test database Manually? Explain with an example
1. What Technical Environments have you worked with?
2. Have you ever converted Test Scenarios into Test Cases?
3. What is the ONE key element of 'test case'?
4. What is the ONE key element of a Test Plan?
5. What is SQA testing? tell us steps of SQA testing
6. How do you promote the concept of phase containment and defect
7. Which Methodology you follow in your Testcase?
8. Specify the tools used by MNC companies
9. What are the test cases prepared by the testing team
10. During the start of the project how will the company come to an
conclusion that tool is required for testing or not?
11. Define Bug Life Cycle? What is Metrics
12. What is a Test procedure?
13. What is the difference between SYSTEM TESTING and END-TO-END
14. What is Traceability Matrix? Is there any interchangeable term for
Traceability Matrix ?Are Traceability Matrix and Test Matrix same or
Different ?
15. What is the differance between an exception and an error?
16. Correct bug tracking process - Reporting, Re-testing, Debigging, .....?
17. What is the difference between bug and defect?
18. How much time is/should be alloated for Testing out of total
Development time based on industry standards?
19. What are test bugs?
20. Define Quality - bug free, Functionality working or both?
1. If you have an application, but you do not have any requiremnts
available, then how would you perform the testing?
2. How can you know if a test case is necessary?
3. What is peer review in practical terms?
4. How do you know when you have enough test cases to adequately test a
software system or module?
5. Who approved your test cases?
6. What will you when you find a bug?
7. What test plans have you written?
8. What is QA? What is Testing? Are they both same or different?
9. How to write Negative Testcase? Give ex.
10. In an application currently in production, one module of code is being
modified. Is it necessary to re-test the whole application or is it enough to
just test functionality associated with that module?
11. What is included in test strategy? What is overall process of testing
step by step and what are various documnets used testing during process?
12. What is the most challenging situation you had during testing
13. What are you going to do if there is no Functional Spec or any
documents related to the system and developer who wrote the code does
not work in the company anymore, but you have system and need to test?
14. What is the major problem did you resolve during testing process
15. What are the types of functional testing?
16. 1. How will you write integration test cases 2. How will you track bugs
from winrunner. 3.How will you customise the bugs as pass/fail. 4. You find
a bug How will you repair 5. In testcases you have bug or not. 6. What is
use case ? what does it contains.
17. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing
18. What is Random Testing?
19. What is smoke testing?
20. What is stage containment in testing?
1. What is the difference between a Bug and a Defect?
2. How to post a BUG
3. How do we track a bug?plz send format of excel sheet in which we write
the bug details? How do we give the severithy and priority to the bugs?
4. What are the different types of Bugs we normally see in any of the
Project? Include the severity as well.
5. Top Ten Tips for Bug Tracking
1. Can you display the index?
2. At what stage db2 must be up?
3. When do you use subroutines?
4. Initial position of cursor of the exucuton of open statements?
5. What is the index ,types of index ?
6. How many clustering indexes are pasing for a table?
7. When u will use curser with hold option?
8. File opening modes in cobol and corresponding dispositions?
9. What will happened .if the file is open in extend mode and
corresponding is equal to old in jcl?
10. How to know other person job status?
11. What will happened ,if the subprogram is called second time?
12. Can u see s9(4)comp3 data?
13. Commenly facing errors?
14. What is low values and high values?
15. How to enter in xpediter?
16. A dataset contains 1000 records ,I want to brouse particular record in
17. There are two programs say A&B,A is only cobol program,B iscoboldb2
program, how to compile both programs?
18. How to pass return codes from Cobol to jcl?
19. In my jcl ,the 1st step is delete step, if the data set is existing, I want to
delete, that one ,if dataset is no existing, I do not want abend the job, how
can I code in disp?
20. What is diff b/w check pending and copy pending?
21. How to Repair the table?
22. How to see the status of the table?
23. How to load data to a table?
24. What is diff b/w QMF & Spoofi?
25. I have update Row in table using spoofi.how Revert that update Row it
means original position?
26. Quick Respendse and REspondce time in file-aid?
27. File contains 5 records say D,E,F,C,A-I want to copy D and A records
only by using file-aid?
28. What is severity one error in production support?
29. How to increase table space in db2?
30. What is the indexset and sequence set in vsam ksds?
31. How to read last record in vsam file.,I don't know how many records
are there?
32. I have 1000 records in vsam,I want to read records 500 to 900
33. Explain Reuse and upgrade
34. How do you read vsam file?
35. How can we over come the same situation when using flat file.
36. what r the compiler options we use?where the compiler option will
be?What is the need of compiler options?
37. Suppose there is cobol-db2 program.I made changes only in the cobol
program.Is there need recomile the DBRM again?why?
38. After bind i how can we run a cobol-db2 program?
39. By using any condition is there any way to abend a program.?If so
40. What is the diff bet plan,package,dbrm?
41. After retrieving the elements from production,how can do the testing
before moving the changes to production. Whether we have to create the
JCL for testing or it will automatically tested and compiled?
42. What is a packed decimal..?
1. How do you rename all of the jobs to support your new File-naming
2. Does the selection of 'Clear the table and Insert rows' in the ODBC stage
send a Truncate statement to the DB or does it do some kind of Delete
3. Tell me one situation from your last project, where you had faced
problem and How did u solve it?
4. The above might rise another question: Why do we have to load the
dimensional tables first, then fact tables:
5. How will you determine the sequence of jobs to load into data
6. What are the command line functions that import and export the DS
7. What is the utility you use to schedule the jobs on a UNIX server other
than using Ascential Director?
8. How would call an external Java function which are not supported by
9. What will you in a situation where somebody wants to send you a file
and use that file as an input or reference and then run job.
10. Read the String functions in DS
11. How did u connect with DB2 in your last project?
12. What are Sequencers?
13. How did you handle an 'Aborted' sequencer?
14. What are other Performance tunings you have done in your last project
to increase the performance of slowly running jobs?
15. How did you handle reject data?
16. If worked with DS6.0 and latest versions what are Link-Partitioner and
Link-Collector used for?
17. What are Routines and where/how are they written and have you
written any routines before?
18. What are OConv () and Iconv () functions and where are they used?
19. How did u connect to DB2 in your last project?
20. Do u know about METASTAGE?
21. Do you know about INTEGRITY/QUALITY stage?
22. Explain the differences between Oracle8i/9i?
23. How good are you with your PL/SQL?
24. Did you work in UNIX environment?
25. What other ETL's you have worked with?
26. What versions of DS you worked with?
27. What is DS Designer used for - did u use it?
28. What is DS Administrator used for - did u use it?
29. What is DS Director used for - did u use it?
30. What is DS Manager used for - did u use it?
31. What are Static Hash files and Dynamic Hash files?
32. What is Hash file stage and what is it used for?
33. Have you ever involved in updating the DS versions like DS 5.X, if so
tell us some the steps you have taken in doing so?
34. Did you Parameterize the job or hard-coded the values in the jobs?
35. How do you merge two files in DS?
1. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
2. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
3. Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur server-side or
client-side? Why?
4. What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or
5. What is the difference between Servers? Transfer and Response.
Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
6.Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web
service as opposed to a non-serviced .NET component
7.Let's say I have an existing application written using Visual Studio 6 (VB
6, InterDev 6) and this application utilizes Windows 2000 COM+ transaction
services. How would you approach migrating this application to .NET
8.Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO
9. Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the
Application Start and Session Start subroutines?
10. If I'm developing an application that must accommodate multiple
security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web application is
spanned across three web-servers (using round-robin load balancing) what
would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users?
1) What is static variable.
2) What is transient variable?
3) What is final variable.
4) What is final method.
5) What is native method.
6) What is abstract method
7) what is innerclass.
8) What is static class?
9) What is final class.
10) What is anonymous class?
1) What is a transaction. (*)
2) What is the purpose of setAutoCommit(). (*)
3) What are the three statements in JDBC & differences between them. (*)
4) What is stored procedure. How do you create stored procedure? (*)
5) What are batch updates.
1)What is JSP. (*)
2)What are advantages of JSP.
3)What is the difference between include directive & jsp:include action. (*)
4)What are Custom tags. Why do you need Custom tags. How do you
create Custom tag. (*)
5)What are the implicit objects in JSP & differences between them. (*)
1)What are Servlets.
2)What are the advantages of Servlet.
3)What is the Life cycle of Servlet. (*)
4)What is the difference between Servlet and JSP. (*)
EJB:- (All questions are important)
1)What is the difference between normal Java object and EJB.
2)What is the difference between JavaBean and EJB.
3)What is EJB.
4)What is Session Bean. What are the various types of Session Bean.
1)What is the difference between SAX parser and DOM parser. (*)
2)What is the difference between Schema and DTD. (*)
3)How do you parse/validate the XML document. (*)
4)What is XML Namespace.
5)What is Xpath.
1)What is the APP engine event in peoplecode.
2)what are the different actions in APP ENGINE.
3)How many temp records are there in app engine.
4)How do you debug your AE.
5)Why temp records are needed?
6)Why state records are needed?
7)Differences between State and temp records.
8)Different ways to run AE, SQR.(Command, process scheduler)
7)Different sql statements and metasql statements.
8)How do you retrieve a value from scroll..scroll select?
9)What is scroll select, etc
10)what is record, row peoplecode.
1)What are copybooks(DB2)?
2)What is plan?
3)Tell me the sections in COBOL?
4)Connectivity to DB2 from COBOL.
5)What are the customizations in COBOL?
6)Diff between union and union all?
7)Give me example for group by.
8)What is SPUFI?
9)Replacement of query analyzer--- SPUFI(DB2)
1.Elementary search helps, Collective search help.
2.Difference between Search Helps and Match Codes
3.Have you created database tables?
4.Difference between client dependent and client independent tables?
5.How to create client independent tables
6.Have you created Maintenance dialog or Table Maintenance?
7.On ABAP: Did you set up a workflow? Are you familiar with all steps for
setting up a workflow?
8.Have you used performance tuning? What major steps will you use for
9.In the ‘select’ statement what is “group by”?
10.Have you worked with field groups? Have you used Import/Export
1.Fixed point arithmetic – what is the use? How to set this?
2.Have you used client dependent ABAP programs?
1.Select statement to read data into internal tables. Types of Select
2.What happens “Update” command is used without where clause ?
3.Difference between “Insert”, “Update” and “Modify”
4.Explain “Commit” and “Roll back”
5.“Catch” Command
6.What is “Group by” in Select statement?
1.What automating testing tools are you familiar with?
2.How did you use automating testing tools in your job?
3.Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool.
4.How do you plan test automation?
5.Can test automation improve test effectiveness?
6.What is data - driven automation?
7.What are the main attributes of test automation?
8.Does automation replace manual testing?
9.How will you choose a tool for test automation?
10.How you will evaluate the tool for test automation?
1.What criteria would you use to select Web transactions for load testing?
2.For what purpose are virtual users created?
3.Why it is recommended to add verification checks to your all your
4.In what situation would you want to parameterize a text verification
5.Why do you need to parameterize fields in your virtual user script?
1.What types of documents would you need for QA, QC, and Testing?
2.What did you include in a test plan?
3.Describe any bug you remember.
4.What is the purpose of the testing?
5.What do you like (not like) in this job?
6.What is quality assurance?
7.What is the difference between QA and testing?
8.How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project?
9.What is the role of QA in a development project?
10.What is the role of QA in a company that produces software?
1. What is the output of printf("%d")
2. Difference between "C structure" and "C++ structure".
3. Difference between a "assignment operator" and a "copy
4. What is the difference between "overloading" and "overriding"?
5. Explain the need for "Virtual Destructor".
6. Can we have "Virtual Constructors"?
7. What are the different types of polymorphism?
8. What are Virtual Functions? How to implement virtual functions in
9. What are the different types of Storage classes?
10. What is Namespace?
1. 3 main differences between flexgrid control and dbgrid control
2. ActiveX and Types of ActiveX Components in VB
3. Advantage of ActiveX Dll over Active Exe
4. Advantages of disconnected recordsets
5. Benefit of wrapping database calls into MTS transactions
6. Benefits of using MTS
7. Can database schema be changed with DAO, RDO or ADO?
8. Can you create a tabletype of recordset in Jet - connected ODBC
database engine?
9. Constructors and distructors
10. Controls which do not have events
SQL Server
1.What are primary keys and foreign keys?
2.What is the difference between clustered and non-clustered indices?
...and why do you use a clustered index?
3.What is an outer join?
4.What are Cartesian joins?
5.How is referential integrity enforced in a SQL Server database?
6.What are the inserted and deleted tables and what are they used for?
7.What is the name of the SQL language used in SQL Server stored
8.What is the purpose of having stored procedures in a database?
9.Why might you create a stored procedure with the 'with recompile'
10.What is a cursor? Within a cursor, how would you update fields on the
row just fetched?
1.What are the different types of joins?
2.Explain normalization with examples.
3.What cursor type do you use to retrieve multiple recordsets?
4.Difference between a "where" clause and a "having" clause
5.What is the difference between "procedure" and "function"?
6.How will you copy the structure of a table without copying the data?
7.How to find out the database name from SQL*PLUS command prompt?
8.Talk about "Exception Handling" in PL/SQL?
9.What is the difference between "NULL in C" and "NULL in Oracle?"
10.What is Pro*C? What is OCI?
1.What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle
2.What are the components of logical database structure of Oracle
3.What is a tablespace?
4.What is SYSTEM tablespace and when is it created?
5.Explain the relationship among database, tablespace and data file.
6.What is schema?
7.What are Schema Objects?
8.Can objects of the same schema reside in different tablespaces?
9.Can a tablespace hold objects from different schemes?
10.What is Oracle table?
1.How do you control visibility in Siebel?
2.What is the difference between an organization and division in Siebel?
3.What does position represents in Siebel?
4.How do you assign responsibilities to employees in Siebel?
5.How do you set up employees in Siebel?
6.What happens if you create an employee in Siebel application and forget
to create the employee in the database?
7.Why do you need to create employees at the database in Siebel?
8.What is position type field in position applet?
9.What does an opportunity, account contact do in Siebel?
10.How is the opportunity related to an account?
1. What is a data-warehouse?
2. What are Data Marts?
4. What is ER Diagram?
5. What is a Star Schema?
6. What is Dimensional Modelling?
7. What is Snow Flake Schema?
1. What is a staging area? Do we need it? What is the purpose of a staging
2. What is a three tier data warehouse?
3. What are the various methods of getting incremental records or delta
records from the source systems?
1. What is Business Intelligence?
2. What is OLAP?
3. What is OLAP, MOLAP, ROLAP, DOLAP, HOLAP? Examples?
1.What is the function you would use to transfer a string into a decimal?
2.How many parallelisms are in Abinitio? Please give a definition of each.
3.What is the difference between a DB config and a CFG file?

Sunday, June 28, 2009

UNIX Commands Interview Questions And Answers

1. Construct pipes to execute the following jobs.
1. Output of who should be displayed on the screen with value of total number of users who have logged in displayed at the bottom of the list.

2. Output of ls should be displayed on the screen and from this output the lines containing the word ‘poem’ should be counted and the count should be stored in a file.

3. Contents of file1 and file2 should be displayed on the screen and this output should be appended in a file. From output of ls the lines containing ‘poem’ should be displayed on the screen along with the count.

4. Name of cities should be accepted from the keyboard . This list should be combined with the list present in a file. This combined list should be sorted and the sorted list
should be stored in a file ‘newcity’.

5. All files present in a directory dir1 should be deleted any error while deleting should be stored in a file ‘errorlog’.

2. Explain the following commands.
$ ls > file1
$ banner hi-fi > message
$ cat par.3 par.4 par.5 >> report
$ cat file1>file1
$ date ; who
$ date ; who > logfile
$ (date ; who) > logfile

3. What is the significance of the “tee” command?
It reads the standard input and sends it to the standard output while redirecting a copy of what it has read to the file specified by the user.

4. What does the command “ $who | sort –logfile > newfile” do?
The input from a pipe can be combined with the input from a file . The trick is to use the special symbol “-“ (a hyphen) for those commands that recognize the hyphen as std input.
In the above command the output from who becomes the std input to sort , meanwhile sort opens the file logfile, the contents of this file is sorted together with the output of who (rep by the hyphen) and the sorted output is redirected to the file newfile.

5. What does the command “$ls | wc –l > file1” do?
ls becomes the input to wc which counts the number of lines it receives as input and instead of displaying this count , the value is stored in file1.

6. Which of the following commands is not a filter man , (b) cat , (c) pg , (d) head
Ans: man
A filter is a program which can receive a flow of data from std input, process (or filter) it and send the result to the std output.

7. How is the command “$cat file2 “ different from “$cat >file2 and >> redirection operators ?
is the output redirection operator when used it overwrites while >> operator appends into the file.

9. Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command.
After the command line is terminated by the key, the shel goes ahead with processing the command line in one or more passes. The sequence is well defined and assumes the following order.
Parsing: The shell first breaks up the command line into words, using spaces and the delimiters, unless quoted. All consecutive occurrences of a space or tab are replaced here with a single space.
Variable evaluation: All words preceded by a $ are avaluated as variables, unless quoted or escaped.
Command substitution: Any command surrounded by backquotes is executed by the shell which t hen replaces the standard output of the command into the command line.
Wild-card interpretation: The shell finally scans the command line for wild-cards (the characters *, ?, [, ]).
Any word containing a wild-card is replaced by a sorted list of filenames that match the pattern. The list of these filenames then forms the arguments to the command.
PATH evaluation: It finally looks for the PATH variable to determine the sequence of directories it has to search in order to hunt for the command.

10. What difference between cmp and diff commands?
cmp - Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch
diff - tells the changes to be made to make the files identical

11. What is the use of ‘grep’ command?
‘grep’ is a pattern search command. It searches for the pattern, specified in the command line with appropriate option, in a file(s).
Syntax : grep
Example : grep 99mx mcafile

12. What is the difference between cat and more command?
Cat displays file contents. If the file is large the contents scroll off the screen before we view it. So
command 'more' is like a pager which displays the contents page by page.

13. Write a command to kill the last background job?
Kill $!

14. Which command is used to delete all files in the current directory and all its sub-directories?
rm -r *

15. Write a command to display a file’s contents in various formats?
$od -cbd file_name
c - character, b - binary (octal), d-decimal, od=Octal Dump.

16. What will the following command do?
$ echo *
It is similar to 'ls' command and displays all the files in the current directory.

17. Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX?
Yes, ‘mkfs’ is used to create a new file system.
18. Is it possible to restrict incoming message?
Yes, using the ‘mesg’ command.

19. What is the use of the command "ls -x chapter[1-5]"
ls stands for list; so it displays the list of the files that starts with 'chapter' with suffix '1' to '5', chapter1,
chapter2, and so on.

20. Is ‘du’ a command? If so, what is its use?
Yes, it stands for ‘disk usage’. With the help of this command you can find the disk capacity and free space of the disk.

21. Is it possible to count number char, line in a file; if so, How?
Yes, wc-stands for word count.
wc -c for counting number of characters in a file.
wc -l for counting lines in a file.

22. Name the data structure used to maintain file identification?
‘inode’, each file has a separate inode and a unique inode number.

23. How many prompts are available in a UNIX system?
Two prompts, PS1 (Primary Prompt), PS2 (Secondary Prompt).

24. How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files?

Kernel checks 'type' field in the file's inode structure.

25. How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges?
Use ‘su’ command. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges.

26. What are shell variables?
Shell variables are special variables, a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell.
Example: PATH, HOME, MAIL and TERM

27. What is redirection?
Directing the flow of data to the file or from the file for input or output.
Example : ls > wc

28. How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0?
With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.
Syntax: kill pid
Kill 0 - kills all processes in your system except the login shell.

29. What is a pipe and give an example?
A pipe is two or more commands separated by pipe char '|'. That tells the shell to arrange for the output of the preceding command to be passed as input to the following command.
Example : ls -l | pr
The output for a command ls is the standard input of pr. When a sequence of commands are combined using pipe, then it is called pipeline.

30. Explain kill() and its possible return values.
There are four possible results from this call:
‘kill()’ returns 0. This implies that a process exists with the given PID, and the system would allow you to send signals to it. It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie.
‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID, or security enhancements are causing the system to deny its existence. (On some systems, the process could be a zombie.) ‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == EPERM’ the system would not allow you to kill the specified process. This means that either the process exists (again, it could be a zombie) or draconian security enhancements are present (e.g. your process is not allowed to send signals to *anybody*). ‘kill()’ returns -1, with some other value of ‘errno’ you are in trouble! The most-used technique is to assume that success or failure with ‘EPERM’ implies that the process exists, and any other error implies that it doesn't.
An alternative exists, if you are writing specifically for a system (or all those systems) that provide a ‘/proc’ filesystem: checking for the existence of ‘/proc/PID’ may work.

Saturday, June 27, 2009

HR Interview Questions and Answers

What Are Your Strenght and Weaknesses?
"My strength is my flexibility to handle change. As far as weaknesses, I feel that my management skills could be stronger, and I am constantly working to improve them."

Why Should We Hire You?
"I have a unique combination of strong technical skills, and the ability to build strong customer relationships. This allows me to use my knowledge and break down information to be more user-friendly." "With five years' experience working in the financial industry and my proven record of saving the company money, I could make a big difference in your company. I'm confident I would be a great addition to your team."
Why Do You Want to Work Here?
This is the company I've been looking for, a place where my background, experience and skills can be put to use and make things happen."
"I've selected key companies whose mission statements are in line with my values, and this company is very high on my list of desirable choices."
WHAT is ur goal
"My immediate goal is to get a job in a growth-oriented company. My long-term goal will depend on where the company goes. I hope to eventually grow into a position of responsibility."

If you are employed, focus on what you want in your next job: "After two years, I made the decision to look for a company that is team-focused, where I can add my experience."
When Were You Most Satisfied in Your Job?
"I was very satisfied in my last job, because I worked directly with the customers and their problems; that is an important part of the job for me."
What Are Three Positive Things Your Last Boss Would Say About You?
It's time to pull out your old performance appraisals and boss's quotes. This is a great way to brag about yourself through someone else's words: "My boss has told me that I am the best designer he has ever had. He knows he can rely on me, and he likes my sense of humor

I have been in the customer service industry for the past five years. My most recent experience has been handling incoming calls in the high tech industry. One reason I particularly enjoy this business, and the challenges that go along with it, is the opportunity to connect with people. In my last job,."
Next, mention your strengths and abilities:
"My real strength is my attention to detail. I pride myself on my reputation for following through and meeting deadlines. When I commit to doing something, I make sure it gets done, and on time."
Conclude with a statement about your current situation:
"What I am looking for now is a company that values customer relations, where I can join a strong team and have a positive impact on customer retention and sales."

Friday, June 26, 2009

Database Interview Questions and answers for Oracle database administrator

Differentiate between TRUNCATE and DELETE
What is the maximum buffer size that can be specified using the DBMS_OUTPUT.ENABLE function?
Can you use a commit statement within a database trigger?
What is an UTL_FILE.What are different procedures and functions associated with it?
Difference between database triggers and form triggers?
What is OCI. What are its uses?
What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a function? Are these operations possible?
Can a function take OUT parameters. If not why?
Can the default values be assigned to actual parameters?
What is difference between a formal and an actual parameter?
What are different modes of parameters used in functions and procedures?
Difference between procedure and function.
Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL tables.If yes how. If not why?
How do you pass cursor variables in PL/SQL?
How do you open and close a cursor variable.Why it is required?
What should be the return type for a cursor variable.Can we use a scalar data type as return type?
What is use of a cursor variable? How it is defined?
What WHERE CURRENT OF clause does in a cursor?
Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND
What is a cursor for loop?
What are cursor attributes?
Difference between an implicit & an explicit cursor.
What is a cursor?
What is the purpose of a cluster?
How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?
Display the number value in Words?
What is a pseudo column. Give some examples?
How you will avoid your query from using indexes?
What is a OUTER JOIN?
Which is more faster - IN or EXISTS?
When do you use WHERE clause and when do you use HAVING clause?
There is a % sign in one field of a column. What will be the query to find it?
What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?
Which datatype is used for storing graphics and images?
What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS?
What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints?
What is difference between Rename and Alias?
What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES?

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MS SQL Server interview questions
This one always gets asked. For a while the database interview questions were limited to Oracle and generic database design questions. This is a set of more than a hundred Microsoft SQL Server interview questions. Some questions are open-ended, and some do not have answers.

What is normalization? - Well a relational database is basically composed of tables that contain related data. So the Process of organizing this data into tables is actually referred to as normalization.
What is a Stored Procedure? - Its nothing but a set of T-SQL statements combined to perform a single task of several tasks. Its basically like a Macro so when you invoke the Stored procedure, you actually run a set of statements.
Can you give an example of Stored Procedure? - sp_helpdb , sp_who2, sp_renamedb are a set of system defined stored procedures. We can also have user defined stored procedures which can be called in similar way.
What is a trigger? - Triggers are basically used to implement business rules. Triggers is also similar to stored procedures. The difference is that it can be activated when data is added or edited or deleted from a table in a database.
What is a view? - If we have several tables in a db and we want to view only specific columns from specific tables we can go for views. It would also suffice the needs of security some times allowing specfic users to see only specific columns based on the permission that we can configure on the view. Views also reduce the effort that is required for writing queries to access specific columns every time.
What is an Index? - When queries are run against a db, an index on that db basically helps in the way the data is sorted to process the query for faster and data retrievals are much faster when we have an index.
What are the types of indexes available with SQL Server? - There are basically two types of indexes that we use with the SQL Server. Clustered and the Non-Clustered.
What is the basic difference between clustered and a non-clustered index? - The difference is that, Clustered index is unique for any given table and we can have only one clustered index on a table. The leaf level of a clustered index is the actual data and the data is resorted in case of clustered index. Whereas in case of non-clustered index the leaf level is actually a pointer to the data in rows so we can have as many non-clustered indexes as we can on the db.
What are cursors? - Well cursors help us to do an operation on a set of data that we retreive by commands such as Select columns from table. For example : If we have duplicate records in a table we can remove it by declaring a cursor which would check the records during retreival one by one and remove rows which have duplicate values.
When do we use the UPDATE_STATISTICS command? - This command is basically used when we do a large processing of data. If we do a large amount of deletions any modification or Bulk Copy into the tables, we need to basically update the indexes to take these changes into account. UPDATE_STATISTICS updates the indexes on these tables accordingly.
Which TCP/IP port does SQL Server run on? - SQL Server runs on port 1433 but we can also change it for better security.
From where can you change the default port? - From the Network Utility TCP/IP properties –> Port number.both on client and the server.
Can you tell me the difference between DELETE & TRUNCATE commands? - Delete command removes the rows from a table based on the condition that we provide with a WHERE clause. Truncate will actually remove all the rows from a table and there will be no data in the table after we run the truncate command.
Can we use Truncate command on a table which is referenced by FOREIGN KEY? - No. We cannot use Truncate command on a table with Foreign Key because of referential integrity.
What is the use of DBCC commands? - DBCC stands for database consistency checker. We use these commands to check the consistency of the databases, i.e., maintenance, validation task and status checks.
Can you give me some DBCC command options?(Database consistency check) - DBCC CHECKDB - Ensures that tables in the db and the indexes are correctly linked.and DBCC CHECKALLOC - To check that all pages in a db are correctly allocated. DBCC SQLPERF - It gives report on current usage of transaction log in percentage. DBCC CHECKFILEGROUP - Checks all tables file group for any damage.
What command do we use to rename a db? - sp_renamedb ‘oldname’ , ‘newname’
Well sometimes sp_reanmedb may not work you know because if some one is using the db it will not accept this command so what do you think you can do in such cases? - In such cases we can first bring to db to single user using sp_dboptions and then we can rename that db and then we can rerun the sp_dboptions command to remove the single user mode.
What is the difference between a HAVING CLAUSE and a WHERE CLAUSE? - Having Clause is basically used only with the GROUP BY function in a query. WHERE Clause is applied to each row before they are part of the GROUP BY function in a query.
What do you mean by COLLATION? - Collation is basically the sort order. There are three types of sort order Dictionary case sensitive, Dictonary - case insensitive and Binary.
What is a Join in SQL Server? - Join actually puts data from two or more tables into a single result set.
Can you explain the types of Joins that we can have with Sql Server? - There are three types of joins: Inner Join, Outer Join, Cross Join
When do you use SQL Profiler? - SQL Profiler utility allows us to basically track connections to the SQL Server and also determine activities such as which SQL Scripts are running, failed jobs etc..
What is a Linked Server? - Linked Servers is a concept in SQL Server by which we can add other SQL Server to a Group and query both the SQL Server dbs using T-SQL Statements.
Can you link only other SQL Servers or any database servers such as Oracle? - We can link any server provided we have the OLE-DB provider from Microsoft to allow a link. For Oracle we have a OLE-DB provider for oracle that microsoft provides to add it as a linked server to the sql server group.
Which stored procedure will you be running to add a linked server? - sp_addlinkedserver, sp_addlinkedsrvlogin
What are the OS services that the SQL Server installation adds? - MS SQL SERVER SERVICE, SQL AGENT SERVICE, DTC (Distribution transac co-ordinator)
Can you explain the role of each service? - SQL SERVER - is for running the databases SQL AGENT - is for automation such as Jobs, DB Maintanance, Backups DTC - Is for linking and connecting to other SQL Servers
How do you troubleshoot SQL Server if its running very slow? - First check the processor and memory usage to see that processor is not above 80% utilization and memory not above 40-45% utilization then check the disk utilization using Performance Monitor, Secondly, use SQL Profiler to check for the users and current SQL activities and jobs running which might be a problem. Third would be to run UPDATE_STATISTICS command to update the indexes
Lets say due to N/W or Security issues client is not able to connect to server or vice versa. How do you troubleshoot? - First I will look to ensure that port settings are proper on server and client Network utility for connections. ODBC is properly configured at client end for connection ——Makepipe & readpipe are utilities to check for connection. Makepipe is run on Server and readpipe on client to check for any connection issues.
What are the authentication modes in SQL Server? - Windows mode and mixed mode (SQL & Windows).
Where do you think the users names and passwords will be stored in sql server? - They get stored in master db in the sysxlogins table.
What is log shipping? Can we do logshipping with SQL Server 7.0 - Logshipping is a new feature of SQL Server 2000. We should have two SQL Server - Enterprise Editions. From Enterprise Manager we can configure the logshipping. In logshipping the transactional log file from one server is automatically updated into the backup database on the other server. If one server fails, the other server will have the same db and we can use this as the DR (disaster recovery) plan.
Let us say the SQL Server crashed and you are rebuilding the databases including the master database what procedure to you follow? - For restoring the master db we have to stop the SQL Server first and then from command line we can type SQLSERVER .m which will basically bring it into the maintenance mode after which we can restore the master db.
Let us say master db itself has no backup. Now you have to rebuild the db so what kind of action do you take? - (I am not sure- but I think we have a command to do it).
What is BCP? When do we use it? - BulkCopy is a tool used to copy huge amount of data from tables and views. But it won’t copy the structures of the same.
What should we do to copy the tables, schema and views from one SQL Server to another? - We have to write some DTS packages for it.
What are the different types of joins and what dies each do?
What are the four main query statements?
What is a sub-query? When would you use one?
What is a NOLOCK?
What are three SQL keywords used to change or set someone’s permissions?
What is the difference between HAVING clause and the WHERE clause?
What is referential integrity? What are the advantages of it?
What is database normalization?
Which command using Query Analyzer will give you the version of SQL server and operating system?
Using query analyzer, name 3 ways you can get an accurate count of the number of records in a table?
What is the purpose of using COLLATE in a query?
What is a trigger?
What is one of the first things you would do to increase performance of a query? For example, a boss tells you that “a query that ran yesterday took 30 seconds, but today it takes 6 minutes”
What is an execution plan? When would you use it? How would you view the execution plan?
What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
What does it mean to have quoted_identifier on? What are the implications of having it off?
What are the different types of replication? How are they used?
What is the difference between a local and a global variable?
What is the difference between a Local temporary table and a Global temporary table? How is each one used?
What are cursors? Name four types of cursors and when each one would be applied?
What is the purpose of UPDATE STATISTICS?
How do you use DBCC statements to monitor various aspects of a SQL server installation?
How do you load large data to the SQL server database?
How do you check the performance of a query and how do you optimize it?
How do SQL server 2000 and XML linked? Can XML be used to access data?
What is SQL server agent?
What is referential integrity and how is it achieved?
What is indexing?
What is normalization and what are the different forms of normalizations?
Difference between server.transfer and server.execute method?
What id de-normalization and when do you do it?
What is better - 2nd Normal form or 3rd normal form? Why?
Can we rewrite subqueries into simple select statements or with joins? Example?
What is a function? Give some example?
What is a stored procedure?
Difference between Function and Procedure-in general?
Difference between Function and Stored Procedure?
Can a stored procedure call another stored procedure. If yes what level and can it be controlled?
Can a stored procedure call itself(recursive). If yes what level and can it be controlled.?
How do you find the number of rows in a table?
Difference between Cluster and Non-cluster index?
What is a table called, if it does not have neither Cluster nor Non-cluster Index?
Explain DBMS, RDBMS?
Explain basic SQL queries with SELECT from where Order By, Group By-Having?
Explain the basic concepts of SQL server architecture?
Explain couple pf features of SQL server
Scalability, Availability, Integration with internet, etc.)?
Explain fundamentals of Data ware housing & OLAP?
Explain the new features of SQL server 2000?
How do we upgrade from SQL Server 6.5 to 7.0 and 7.0 to 2000?
What is data integrity? Explain constraints?
Explain some DBCC commands?
Explain sp_configure commands, set commands?
Explain what are db_options used for?
What is the basic functions for master, msdb, tempdb databases?
What is a job?
What are tasks?
What are primary keys and foreign keys?
How would you Update the rows which are divisible by 10, given a set of numbers in column?
If a stored procedure is taking a table data type, how it looks?
How m-m relationships are implemented?
How do you know which index a table is using?
How will oyu test the stored procedure taking two parameters namely first name and last name returning full name?
How do you find the error, how can you know the number of rows effected by last SQL statement?
How can you get @@error and @@rowcount at the same time?
What are sub-queries? Give example? In which case sub-queries are not feasible?
What are the type of joins? When do we use Outer and Self joins?
Which virtual table does a trigger use?
How do you measure the performance of a stored procedure?
Questions regarding Raiseerror?
Questions on identity?
If there is failure during updation of certain rows, what will be the state?

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JDBC and JSP interview questions
What is the query used to display all tables names in SQL Server (Query analyzer)?

select * from information_schema.tables

How many types of JDBC Drivers are present and what are they?- There are 4 types of JDBC Drivers
JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver

Native API Partly Java Driver
Network protocol Driver
JDBC Net pure Java Driver
Can we implement an interface in a JSP?- No
What is the difference between ServletContext and PageContext?- ServletContext: Gives the information about the container. PageContext: Gives the information about the Request
What is the difference in using request.getRequestDispatcher() and context.getRequestDispatcher()?- request.getRequestDispatcher(path): In order to create it we need to give the relative path of the resource, context.getRequestDispatcher(path): In order to create it we need to give the absolute path of the resource.
How to pass information from JSP to included JSP?- Using <%jsp:param> tag.
What is the difference between directive include and jsp include?- <%@ include>: Used to include static resources during translation time. JSP include: Used to include dynamic content or static content during runtime.
What is the difference between RequestDispatcher and sendRedirect?- RequestDispatcher: server-side redirect with request and response objects. sendRedirect : Client-side redirect with new request and response objects.
How does JSP handle runtime exceptions?- Using errorPage attribute of page directive and also we need to specify isErrorPage=true if the current page is intended to URL redirecting of a JSP.
How do you delete a Cookie within a JSP?
Cookie mycook = new Cookie(\"name\",\"value\");
Cookie killmycook = new Cookie(\"mycook\",\"value\");

How do I mix JSP and SSI #include?- If you’re just including raw HTML, use the #include directive as usual inside your .jsp file.

But it’s a little trickier if you want the server to evaluate any JSP code that’s inside the included file. If your data.inc file contains jsp code you will have to use

<%@ vinclude="data.inc" %>

The is used for including non-JSP files.

I made my class Cloneable but I still get Can’t access protected method clone. Why?- Some of the Java books imply that all you have to do in order to have your class support clone() is implement the Cloneable interface. Not so. Perhaps that was the intent at some point, but that’s not the way it works currently. As it stands, you have to implement your own public clone() method, even if it doesn’t do anything special and just calls super.clone().
Why is XML such an important development?- It removes two constraints which were holding back Web developments: dependence on a single, inflexible document type (HTML) which was being much abused for tasks it was never designed for; the complexity of full SGML, whose syntax allows many powerful but hard-to-program options. XML allows the flexible development of user-defined document types. It provides a robust, non-proprietary, persistent, and verifiable file format for the storage and transmission of text and data both on and off the Web; and it removes the more complex options of SGML, making it easier to program for.
What is the fastest type of JDBC driver?- JDBC driver performance will depend on a number of issues:
the quality of the driver code,

the size of the driver code,
the database server and its load,
network topology,
the number of times your request is translated to a different API.
In general, all things being equal, you can assume that the more your request and response change hands, the slower it will be. This means that Type 1 and Type 3 drivers will be slower than Type 2 drivers (the database calls are make at least three translations versus two), and Type 4 drivers are the fastest (only one translation).

How do I find whether a parameter exists in the request object?
boolean hasFoo = !(request.getParameter(\"foo\") == null
|| request.getParameter(\"foo\").equals(\"\"));


boolean hasParameter =
request.getParameterMap().contains(theParameter); //(which works in Servlet 2.3+)

How can I send user authentication information while makingURLConnection?- You’ll want to use HttpURLConnection.setRequestProperty and set all the appropriate headers to HTTP authorization.

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SQL Server interview questions
How do you read transaction logs?
How do you reset or reseed the IDENTITY column?
How do you persist objects, permissions in tempdb?
How do you simulate a deadlock for testing purposes?
How do you rename an SQL Server computer?
How do you run jobs from T-SQL?
How do you restore single tables from backup in SQL Server 7.0/2000? In SQL Server 6.5?
Where to get the latest MDAC from?
I forgot/lost the sa password. What do I do?
I have only the .mdf file backup and no SQL Server database backups. Can I get my database back into SQL Server?
How do you add a new column at a specific position (say at the beginning of the table or after the second column) using ALTER TABLE command?
How do you change or alter a user defined data type?
How do you rename an SQL Server 2000 instance?
How do you capture/redirect detailed deadlock information into the error logs?
How do you remotely administer SQL Server?
What are the effects of switching SQL Server from ‘Mixed mode’ to ‘Windows only’ authentication mode? What are the steps required, to not break existing applications?
Is there a command to list all the tables and their associated filegroups?
How do you ship the stored procedures, user defined functions (UDFs), triggers, views of my application, in an encrypted form to my clients/customers? How do you protect intellectual property?
How do you archive data from my tables? Is there a built-in command or tool for this?
How do you troubleshoot ODBC timeout expired errors experienced by applications accessing SQL Server databases?
How do you restart SQL Server service automatically at regular intervals?
What is the T-SQL equivalent of IIF (immediate if/ternary operator) function of other programming languages?
How do you programmatically find out when the SQL Server service started?
How do you get rid of the time part from the date returned by GETDATE function?
How do you upload images or binary files into SQL Server tables?
How do you run an SQL script file that is located on the disk, using T-SQL?
How do you get the complete error message from T-SQL while error handling?
How do you get the first day of the week, last day of the week and last day of the month using T-SQL date functions?
How do you pass a table name, column name etc. to the stored procedure so that I can dynamically select from a table?
Error inside a stored procedure is not being raised to my front-end applications using ADO. But I get the error when I run the procedure from Query Analyzer.
How do you suppress error messages in stored procedures/triggers etc. using T-SQL?
How do you save the output of a query/stored procedure to a text file?
How do you join tables from different databases?
How do you join tables from different servers?
How do you convert timestamp data to date data (datetime datatype)?
Can I invoke/instantiate COM objects from within stored procedures or triggers using T-SQL?
Oracle has a rownum to access rows of a table using row number or row id. Is there any equivalent for that in SQL Server? Or How do you generate output with row number in SQL Server?
How do you specify a network library like TCP/IP using ADO connect string?
How do you generate scripts for repetitive tasks like truncating all the tables in a database, changing owner of all the database objects, disabling constraints on all tables etc?
Is there a way to find out when a stored procedure was last updated?
How do you find out all the IDENTITY columns of all the tables in a given database?
How do you search the code of stored procedures?
How do you retrieve the generated GUID value of a newly inserted row? Is there an @@GUID, just like @@IDENTITY?